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Are there any places that help me understand Korean history or cultural heritages better?
Yes, there are some places, which are designated as World Heritages by UNESCO. 7 World Heritages are in South Korea. They are lots of historical and cultural gems of Korea, which will give you a chance to discover the deep values of Korean history & cultures that you can hardly from books.
Cultural Heritage Administration
(World Heritage Section)

UNESCO World Heritage Center
(Republic of Korea Section)
http://whc.unesco.org/en/ statesparties/kr
In Korea cultural & historic relics are everywhere, so it will make your travel more fruitful if you learn some basic knowledge of Korean history ahead of time.
UNESCO World Heritage
In Korea
Changdeokgung Palace
the only palace in Korea that preserves the architectural
style of the Joseon Dynasty
Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites
the prehistoric cemeteries at Gochang, Hwasun, and
Ganghwa contain many hundreds of examples of dolmens.
Gyeongju Historic Areas,
contain a remarkable concentration of outstanding examples of Korean Buddhist
art, in the form of sculpture, pagoda, and the remains of temple & palace.
Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon,
the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks, the most complete collection of Buddhist texts, engraved on 80,000 woodblocks.
Hwaseong Fortress,
was built to show the King's filial piety toward his father Jangheonseja, and also to build a new city with its own economic power.
Jongmyo Shrine,
the oldest and most authentic of the Confucian royal shrines to have been preserved.
Seokguram Grotto & Bulguksa Temple,
established in the 8th century on the slopes of Mount Toham, a monumental statue of the Buddha.